Nuclear Reader

The Nuclear Reader was written with the intention of bringing into focus information known and unknown which surrounds the use of nuclear energy.........

Chapter 1. Hazards of Low Level Radioactivity
This chapter discusses some of the Many hazards of low level radioactivity.

Chapter 2. Nuclear Power is Bad Business
This chapter dispells the myth that nuclear power is economically viable.

Chapter 3. The Petkau Effect
This chapter explains the health damaging effect of low-dose radioactivity.

Chapter 4. Health Damage from Radioactivity
This chapter clarifies that there is no safe dose of radiation.

Chapter 5. References
Medical literature on radiation health damage.

Chapter 6. Depleted Uranium
This chapter looks at depleted uranium as a part of the nuclear energy cycle with attention to military uses.

Chapter 7. Photos of Radiation Damage
This chapter contains photos of plant deformities and infant deformaties.

Chapter 8. Radioactive Waste
This chapter discusses the fact that there is no plan for long term storage of radioactive waste.

Chapter 9. Toward Clean Energy
Thsi chapter explores clean renewable energy sources.


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You are invited and encouraged to utilize this material freely: copy, quote, include in any way you can. Please give source. At this critical time, it is important to share this information with others.


With appreciation to Ernest J. Sternglass for this bibliography, compiled 1998.

Dr. Ernest J. Sternglass is a retired Professor Emeritus of Radiological Physics at the University of Pittsburgh.  He is the author of Secret Fallout (free download at
Archer VE (1987) "Association of Nuclear Fallout with Leukemia in the United States." Archives of Environmental Health 42(5): 263-271. 

Barton CJ, Roman E, et al. (1985) "Childhood Leukemia in West Berkshire." Lancet 2(8466): 1248-1249. 

Bertell R (1985) No Immediate Danger: Prognosis for a Radioactive Earth. Summertown, TN, Book Publishing Co. 

Bertell R (1995) Low Level Radiation Exposure Effects in the Tri-State Leukemia Survey. 2nd International Congress of the Society for Radiation Protection.  Berlin, Germany, Thomas Dersee, Strahlentelex: 48-59. 

Burlakova E (1996) Changes in the Antioxidative Status of People and Animals after the Action of Low-Dose Irradiation. International Workshop on Radiation Exposures by Nuclear Facilities- Evidence of Impact on Health. M. Schmidt. Portsmouth, England, University of Portsmouth: 281. 

Checkoway H, Pearce N, et al. (1988) "Radiation Doses and Cause Specific Mortality among Workers at a Nuclear Materials Fabrication Plant." American Journal of Epidemiology 127(2): 255-266. 

Clapp RW, Cobb S, et al. (1987) "Leukemia near Massachusetts Nuclear Power Plant." Lancet 2(8571): 1324-1325. 

Cook-Mozaffari P, Ashwood F, et al. (1987) "Cancer incidence and mortality in the vicinity of nuclear installations. England and Wales, 1950?1980.” (Studies on Medical and Population Subjects, No.51). Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, HMSO, London

Cook-Mozaffari P, Darby S, et al. (1989) "Geographical Variation in Mortality from Leukemia and other Cancers in England and Wales in Relation to Proximity to Nuclear Installations, 1969-78." British Journal of Cancer 59(3): 476-485. 

Crump KS, Ng TH, et al. (1987) "Cancer Incidence Patterns in the Denver Metropolitan Area in Relation to the Rocky Flats Plant." American Journal of Epidemiology 126(1): 127-135. 

Czeizel A (1990) "Infant Mortality after Chernobyl." Lancet 335(8682): 161. 

DeGroot M (1971) Statistical studies of the effect of low level radiation from nuclear reactors on human health. Sixth Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, University of California, Berkeley, University of California Press. 

Diamond EL, Schmerle H, et al. (1973) "Relationship of Intrauterine Radiation to Subsequent Mortality and Development of Leukemia in Children - Prospective Study." American Journal of Epidemiology 97(5): 283-313. 

Ewings PD, Bowie C, et al. (1989) "Incidence of Leukemia in Young People in the Vicinity of Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station, 1959-86." British Medical Journal 299(6694): 289-293. 

Forman D, Cook-Mozaffari P, et al. (1987) "Cancer near Nuclear Installations." Nature 329(6139): 499-505. 

Gardner MJ (1989) "Review of Reported Increases of Childhood Cancer Rates in the Vicinity of Nuclear Installations in the UK." Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A-Statistics in Society 152: 307-325. 

Gardner MJ, Snee MP, et al. (1990) "Results of Case Control Study of Leukemia and Lymphoma among Young People near Sellafield Nuclear Plant in West Cumbria." British Medical Journal 300(6722): 423-429. 

Gardner MJ, and Winter PD (1984) "Mortality in Cumberland during 1959-78 with Reference to Cancer in Young People around Windscale." Lancet 1(8370): 216-217. 

Geiser ES, and Hoffman W (1996) Epidemiological Evaluation of Leukemia Incidence in Children and Adults in the Vicinity of a Nuclear Power Station. International Workshop on Radiation Exposures by Nuclear Facilities:  Evidence of Impact on Health. Portsmouth, England, University of Portsmouth: 146-159. 

Gentry JT, Parkhurst E, et al. (1959) "An Epidemiological Study of Congenital Malformations in New York State." American Journal of Public Health and the Nations Health 49(4): 497-513. 

Gilman E,  Kneale GW, et al. (1987) "Background Radiation and Childhood Cancers." International Journal of Radiation Biology 51(4): 739. 

Goldsmith J, and Kordysh E (1996) Evidence of Excess Bone Cancer in the Vicinity of U.S. and U.K. Nuclear Installations. International Workshop on Radiation Exposures by Nuclear Facilities: Evidence of Impact on Health. M. Schmidt ed. Portsmouth, England, University of Portsmouth: 246-266. 

Gould JM (1992) "Neonatal Mortality since 1935." British Medical Journal 304(6829): 776. 

Gould JM (1996) The enemy within: the high cost of living near nuclear reactors: breast cancer, AIDS, low birthweights, and other radiation induced immune deficiency effects. Radiation and Public Health Project. New York, Four Walls Eight Windows

Gould JM, Goldman BA, et al. (1990) "Deadly Deceit : Low Level Radiation, High Level Cover-up". New York, Four Walls Eight Windows. 

Gould JM and Sternglass EJ (1989) "Low Level Radiation and Mortality." Chemtech 19(1): 18-21. 

Gould JM and Sternglass EJ (1994) "Nuclear Fallout, Low Birth Weight, and Immune Deficiency." International Journal of Health Services 24(2): 311-335. 

Grossman CM, Morton WE, et al. (1996) "Hypothyroidism and Spontaneous Abortions among Hanford, Washington, Downwinders." Archives of Environmental Health 51(3): 175-176. 

Hatch M and Susser M (1990) "Background Gamma-Radiation and Childhood Cancers within 10 Miles of a United States Nuclear Plant." International Journal of Epidemiology 19(3): 546-552. 

Hatch M, Beyea J, et al. (1990) "Cancer near the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant - Radiation Emissions." American Journal of Epidemiology 132(3): 397-412. 

Heasman MA, Kemp W, et al. (1984) "Incidence of Leukemia in Young Persons in the West of Scotland." Lancet 1(8387): 1188-1189. 

Hoffman, W (1996) Review and Discussion of Epidemiologic Evidence for Childhood Leukemia Clusters in Germany. International Workshop on Radiation Exposures by Nuclear Facilities: Evidence of Impact on Health. M. Schmidt, ed.  Portsmouth, England, University of Portsmouth: 56-78. 

Johnson CJ (1981) "Cancer Incidence in an area Contaminated with Radionuclides near a Nuclear Installation." Ambio 10(4): 176-182. 

Johnson CJ (1984) "Cancer Incidence in an area of Radioactive Fallout Downwind from the Nevada Test Site." Journal of the American Medical Association 251(2): 230-236. 

Kameyama Y (1989) "High Vulnerability of the Developing Fetal Brain to Ionizing Radiation and Hyperthermia." Environmental Medicine (Nagoya) 33: 1-18. 

Kazakov VS, Demidchik EP, et al. (1992) "Thyroid Cancer after Chernobyl." Nature 359(6390): 21-21. 

Kneale GW, Mancuso TF, et al. (1981) "Hanford Radiation Study: A Cohort Study of the Cancer Risks from Radiation to Workers at Hanford (1944-77 Deaths) by the Method of Regression Models in Life Tables." British Journal of Industrial Medicine 38(2): 156-166. 

Kneale GW and  Stewart AM (1993) "Reanalysis of Hanford Data: 1944-1986 Deaths." American Journal of Industrial Medicine 23(3): 371-389. 

Land CE, McKay FW, et al. (1984) "Childhood Leukemia and Fallout from the Nevada Nuclear Tests." Science 223(4632): 139-144. 

Luning G, Schmidt M, et al. (1989) "Early Infant Mortality in West Germany before and after Chernobyl." Lancet 2(8671): 1081-1083. 

Machado SG, Land CE, et al. (1987) "Cancer Mortality and Radioactive Fallout in Southwestern Utah USA." American Journal of Epidemiology 125(1): 44-61. 

Mangano JJ (1994) "Cancer Mortality near Oak Ridge, Tennessee." International Journal of Health Services 24(3): 521-533. 

Mangano JJ (1996) "A post-Chernobyl rise in thyroid cancer in Connecticut, USA." European Journal of Cancer Prevention 5(1): 75-81. 

Mangano JJ (1996) "Chernobyl and hypothyroidism." Lancet 347(9013): 1482-1483. 

Mangano JJ (1997) "Childhood Leukemia in US May Have Risen Due to Fallout from Chernobyl." British Medical Journal 314(7088): 1200-1200. 

Mangano JJ (1997) "Low Level Radiation Harmed Humans near Three Mile Island." Environmental Health Perspectives 105(8): 786-786. 

Mangano JJ and Reid W (1995) "Thyroid Cancer in The United States since Accident at Chernobyl." British Medical Journal.

Martell EA (1975) "Tobacco Radioactivity and Cancer in Smokers." American Scientist 63(4): 404-412. 

Modan B, Alfandary E, et al. (1989) "Increased Risk of Breast Cancer after Low Dose Irradiation." Lancet 1(8639): 629-631. 

Newcombe HB, Williams N, et al. (1963) "Congenital Abnormalities in Alberta." Canadian Medical Association Journal 89(12): 625.

Nussbaum RH (1996) "Risks from low doses of radiation." Science 272(5262): 632. 

Otake M and Schull WJ (1984) "In Utero Exposure to A-Bomb Radiation and Mental Retardation: A Reassessment." British Journal of Radiology 57(677): 409-414. 

Petkau  A (1972) "Effect of NA-22(+) on a Phospholipid Membrane." Health Physics 22(3): 239-244. 

Petkau  A (1980) "Radiation Carcinogenesis from a Membrane Perspective." Acta Physiologica Scandinavica: 81-90. 

Petkau  A (1986) "Protection and Repair of Irradiated Membranes." Johnson JE et al. eds. Modern Aging Research, Vol. 8. Free Radicals, Aging, and Degenerative Diseases. Alan R. Liss. New York, NY Illus: 481-508. 

Petridou E, Trichopoulos D, et al. (1996) "Infant Leukemia after In Utero exposure to Radiation from Chernobyl." Nature 382(6589): 352-353. 

Reyes M, Wilkinson GS, et al. (1984) "Brain Tumors at a Nuclear Facility." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 26(10): 721-724. 

Rinsky RA, Melius JM, et al. (1988) "Case Control Study of Lung Cancer in Civilian Employees at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine." American Journal of Epidemiology 127(1): 55-64. 

Roman E, Beral V, et al. (1987) "Childhood Leukemia in the West Berkshire District Health Authority and Basingstoke and North Hampshire District Health Authority in Relation to Nuclear Establishments in the Vicinity." British Medical Journal 294(6572): 597-602. 

Sakharov AD (1958) "Radioactive Carbon of Nuclear Explosions and Non-Threshold Biological Effects” Referat. Zhur., Biol., 1960, No. 84323. (Translation). Atomnaya Energiya 4(6): 576-580. 

Scheer J (1987) "How many Chernobyl Fatalities." Nature 329(6140): 589-590. 

Shleien B, Ruttenber AJ, et al. (1991) "Epidemiologic Studies of Cancer in Populations near Nuclear Facilities." Health Physics 61(6): 699-713. 

Sikov MR (1990)  “Effects of Low Dose Prenatal Irradiation on the Central Nervous System.” Report of a Workshop. Seattle, Washington, Pacific Northwest Laboratory. 

Smith PG and Douglas AJ (1986) "Mortality of Workers at the Sellafield Plant of British Nuclear Fuels." British Medical Journal 293(6551): 845-854. 

Sternglass EJ (1963) "Cancer: Relation of Prenatal Radiation to Development of Disease in Childhood." Science 7(3571): 1102-1104. 

Sternglass EJ (1969) "Infant Mortality and Nuclear Tests." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 25(4): 18-20. 

Sternglass EJ and Bell S (1983) "Fallout and SAT Scores: Evidence for Cognitive Damage During Early Infancy." Phi Delta Kappan 64(8): 539-545. 

Sternglass EJ and Gould JM (1993) "Breast Cancer: Evidence for a Relation to Fission Products in the Diet." International Journal of Health Services 23(4): 783-804.

Stewart A (1995) "Childhood Cancers and Competing Causes of Death." Leukemia Research 19(2): 103-111. 

Stewart A and Kneale GW (1989) "Mortality of Hanford Workers." Health Physics 57(5): 839-841. 

Stewart A and Kneale GW (1991) "An Overview of the Hanford Controversy." Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews 6(4): 641-663. 

Stewart A, Webb J, et al. (1958) "A Survey of Childhood Malignancies." British Medical Journal 1: 1495-1508. 

Urquhart J, Cutler J, et al. (1986) "Leukemia and Lymphatic Cancer in Young People near Nuclear Installations." Lancet 1(8477): 384-384. 

Wing S, Richardson D, et al. (1997) "A Reevaluation of Cancer Incidence near the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant: The Collision of Evidence and Assumptions." Environmental Health Perspectives 105(1): 52-57. 

Wing S, Shy CM, et al. (1991) "Mortality among Workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Evidence of Radiation Effects in Follow-up through 1984." Journal of the American Medical Association 265(11): 1397-1402. 

Yoshimaru H, Otake M, et al. (1991) "Effect on School Performance of Prenatal Exposure to the Hiroshima Japan Atomic Bomb." Japanese Journal of Hygiene 46(3): 747-754.  

Book Recommendation:
or information on how to maintain health during this challenging time, prior to bringing in safe energy.
Radiation Protective Foods, A Menu for the Nuclear Age
by Sara Shannon, Author House 2012, available at